Biology of the Three-Spined Stickleback (CRC Marine Biology Series)
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Studies of threespine stickleback developmental evolution: progress and promise. Genetica , Day, T. Pritchard, D. A comparison of two sticklebacks. Grand, T. Risk-taking by threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus pelvic phenotypes: does morphology predict behavior?. Behaviour , Huntingford, F. Behavioral Ecology of Fishes.
Switzerland: Harwood Academic Press. Marchinko, K. Predation's role in repeated phenotypic and genetic divergence of armor in threespine stickleback. Mattern, M. Kingsley, C. Peichel, J.
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Boughman, F. Huntingford, S. Coyle, S. Ostlund-Nilsson, D. McLennan, B. Borg, I. Mayer, M. Pall, I. Barber, I. Biology of the three-spined stickleback. Messler, A. Wund, B. John, S.
The effects of relaxed and reversed selection by predators on the antipredator behavior of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Ethology , Peuhkuri, N. Shoal composition, body size and foraging in sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , Reimchen, T.
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Predator handling failures of lateral plate morphs in Gasterosteus aculeatus : functional implications for the ancestral plate condition. Schluter, D. Adaptive radiation in sticklebacks: size, shape and habitat use efficiency. Ecology , Shaw, K. Scotti, S. Ancestral plasticity and the evolutionary diversification of courtship behavior in threespine sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour , Swarup, H. Stages in the development of the stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. Development , 6: Walker, J. Ecological morphology of lacustrine threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Biological Journal of the Limnean Society , Ward, A.
Krause, I. Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with the microsporidian parasite, Glugea anomala. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. To cite this page: Wood, S. Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.
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Geographic Range The threespine stickleback fish Gasterosteus aculeatus are in marine, brackish and coastal freshwater habitats of the northern hemisphere. Grand, ; Marchinko, ; Reimchen, Known predators of threespine sticklebacks include fish in the families Percidae , Esocidae , and Salmonidae.
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Atlantic Ocean the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean above 60 degrees south latitude , and the western hemisphere. Nearctic living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World.
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Pacific Ocean body of water between the southern ocean above 60 degrees south latitude , Australia, Asia, and the western hemisphere. Palearctic living in the northern part of the Old World.
https://discpavilsi.tk Also called "hoarding". Read more Connect with us Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Previous studies have shown that some traits in sticklebacks evolve by independent mutations that vary among populations The non-globally shared divergent alleles in the Tyne may also represent recent, or locally arising, adaptive variants, although further studies will be required to link such variants to particular traits, or to distinguish them from neutral but highly variable regions of the stickleback genome.
When adaptive divergence occurs in hybridizing systems, theory predicts that selection can favour molecular mechanisms that suppress recombination between independent adaptive loci On the basis of sharp transitions in CSS score and DDC cluster assignments at the boundaries, we hypothesized that chromosomal inversions explain these extended regions. The only locations with five or more anomalous clones mapped to chromosomes I, XI and XXI, and these anomalies could be resolved by the presence of inverted chromosome segments between the marine fish and the freshwater reference genome Fig.
Sequences flanking the predicted inversion breakpoints contain inverted repeats, consistent with generation of inversions by intra-chromosomal recombination Supplementary Fig. Although the functional consequences of such ecotype-specific isoforms remain unknown, KCNH4 homologues help to maintain resting currents, affect cardiac contractility, and alter performance on cognitive tasks if perturbed in mice 37 , 38 , Furthermore, QTL for two distinct marine—freshwater divergent traits have previously been mapped to the broad region of the chromosome XXI inversion Fig.
Importantly, cluster assignment of individual fish by DDC shows that most marine and freshwater populations in the Pacific carry contrasting forms of the inversion regions Supplementary Table Similar ecotype associations are seen in the Atlantic basin for chromosome I no exceptions , XI two exceptions , and to a lesser extent for chromosome XXI three freshwater exceptions.
Genetic markers within the chromosome I and XXI regions are polymorphic in hybrid zones, and show large frequency differences when genotyped in adjacent upstream and downstream fish, confirming that these regions are subject to divergent selection in marine and freshwater habitats Supplementary Table Our results help to explain the broader patterns of genomic divergence seen in Fig. Identification of a genome-wide set of loci used repeatedly in stickleback adaptation provides a rare opportunity to estimate the relative contribution of coding and regulatory changes underlying adaptive evolution in natural populations.
Because all of these regions contain SNPs with perfect allele—ecotype association that do not cause protein-coding changes, they also probably contribute to adaptive divergence by regulatory alterations. The combined data suggest that both coding and regulatory differences contribute to parallel stickleback evolution, with regulatory changes accounting for a much larger proportion of the overall set of loci repeatedly selected during marine—freshwater divergence.
To assess further the possible role of gene regulatory evolution in stickleback evolution, we constructed whole-genome expression arrays to compare levels of gene expression in tissues from Little Campbell River LITC marine and Fish Trap Creek FTC freshwater fish. Of 12, informative genes across the genome, 2, showed significant expression differences between ecotypes.
Although expression differences can be due to either cis - or trans -acting changes, the expression data are consistent with an important role of regulatory changes during parallel evolution of marine and freshwater sticklebacks. Progress in genetic mapping and positional cloning approaches has recently made it possible to identify a few individual genes and mutations that contribute to phenotypic differences between stickleback populations 10 , 11 , 12 , Despite this progress, identifying many such examples using genetic linkage mapping alone would require years of additional effort.
Fortunately, the highly replicated nature of stickleback evolution provides clear molecular signatures that can be used to recover many loci consistently associated with parallel marine—freshwater adaptation.